Biomedical Chemistry: Research and Methods 2019, 2(4), e00110

Drug Analysis Methods

V.V. Shumyantseva 1,2*, T.V. Bulko1, P.I. Koroleva1

1Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Pogodinskaya Street, 10, Moscow 119121, Russia;
2Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovitianov Street, 1, Moscow 117997, Russia

Keywords:electroanalysis; medications; diclofenac; ibuprofen; acetaminophen, erythromycin


The whole version of this paper is available in Russian.

Modern methods of analysis of drugs for their quantitative assessment are considered. Particular attention is paid to the electrochemical methods of drug registration, based on the reaction of electrooxidation of molecules. Systems and materials for modifying electrodes as well as methods for producing modified electrodes for electrochemical reactions on the surface of electrodes are described . The authors present own experimental data on the electroanalysis of acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, omeprazole, using electrodes modified with carbon nanomaterials based on carbon nanotubes and graphene. It has been shown that electroanalytical methods allow the registration of therapeutic drugs in a wide range of detectable concentrations (0.1 М - 10 mM), which can be used in biological fluid analysis(plasma, blood, urine) to conduct drug monitoring and study drug-drug interactions.

Figure 1. The principle of electrochemical analysis of drugs.
(A) Mechanism of diclofenac oxidation.
(B) Differential pulse voltammogram of the oxidative peak of the drug at different analyte concentrations.
(C) Dependence of the maximum amplitude of the oxidation peak current of the analyte (drug) at the oxidation potential (E = 0.6 V) on its concentration (calibration curve).
(D) General scheme of screen-printed electrode.
Figure 2. Scheme for the electrochemical oxidation of acetaminophen (paracetamol).
Figure 3. (A) Differential pulse voltammetry of 100 μM acetaminophen on an unmodified electrode (---) and on electrode modified with a dispersion of graphene doped with nitrogen (-).
(B) Comparative characteristics of the maximum current amplitude of differential pulse voltammetry of 50 μM acetaminophen for an unmodified graphite electrode and an electrode modified with a dispersion of graphene doped with nitrogen (Shumyantseva V.V. et al., manuscript in preparation).
Figure 4. Scheme for the electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac.
Figure 5. Differential pulse voltammetry of 100 μM diclofenac on PGE modified with stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric materials in the potential range 0.2 – 1 V, under aerobic conditions, at room temperature (Shumyantseva V.V. et al., manuscript in preparation).
Figure 6. Scheme for the electrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen.
Figure 7. Differential pulse voltammetry of 10 mM ibuprofen on an unmodified printed graphite electrode (––) and on a PGE modified with a dispersion of CNTs in chloroform (- -).
Inset: 10 mM ibuprofen on PGE. The measurements were carried out in the potential range of 0.6 - 1.6 V, under aerobic conditions, at room temperature (Shumyantseva V.V. et al., manuscript in preparation).
Figure 8. Chemical structure of erythromycin.
Figure 9. Chemical structure of omeprazole.
Figure 10. Differential pulse voltammetry of omeprazole 200 μM (-) and 1 mM (-) omeprazole using CNT/PGE (Shumyantseva V.V. et al., manuscript in preparation).
Figure 11. Design of screen-printed electrodes.

Table 1. Electroanalytic characteristics of drugs.


The work was performed in the framework of the Program for Basic Research of State Academies of Sciences for 2013- 2020 and it was supported by Russian Fund of Fundamental Research (RFBR), research project No. 18-04-00374.


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